Dukhan, berada 84 kilometer dari Doha yang merupakan sisi barat Qatar, menjadi sangat penting karena ditemukannya minyak mentah. Kegiatan Eksplorasi minyak di Dukhan fields pertama kali pada tahun1935 dan sumur minyak pertama kali dibor pada tahun 1940.
Pengiriman minyak mentah pertama kali diekspor oleh Qatar pada 31 Desember 1949. Sejak saat itu Dukhan telah menjadi saksi tahap perkembangan untuk mengakomodasi fasilitas operasional minyak dan gas, yang meliputi perumahan karyawan, fasilitas kesehatan/medical, tempat rekreasi, institusi pendidikan/sekolah dan layanan-layanan lainnya seperti Kantor Polisi, Kantor Imigrasi dan tersedianya fasilitas pasar/supermarket. Dukhan terus dikembangan dan dimodernkan untuk memenuhi standar operasional minyak dan gas Qatar Petroleum serta komunitasnya.
Fields & Operations
Lapangan Minyak Dukhan
Ada berbagai macam kegiatan operasional dan aktivitas di lapangan minyak Dukhan/Dukhan Oil Field [DOF], yang meliputi area seluas kira-kira 640 square kilometer, dimanage dan dilaksanakan oleh Qatar Petroleum.
Qatar mengendalikan sepenuhnya semua kegiatan yang berkaitan dengan minyak dan gas di DOF sejak 1974 dengan formasi QP atau QGPC [Qatar General Petroleum Company]. Dan saat ini menggunakan istilah QP. Pada waktu yang sama, pengembangan sumur pertama di cadangan Khuff dengan dimulainya pengeboran.
Minyak dan Gas Mentah
Di DOF, minyak mentah diproduksi dari cadangan Arab-C, Arab-D and Uwainat. Fasilitas produksi berada di sektor Khatiyah, Fahahil and Jaleha.
Minyak dan gas dipisahkan pada empat tempat (khatiyah Khatiyah North, Khatiyah Main, Fahahil Main and Jaleha) dan tiga stasiun degassing (Khatiyah South, Fahahil North and Fahahil South).
Gas mentah dipisahkan dari tahap yang berbeda dikompres menjadi 400 pound per square inchi and dikirim ke Fahahil Stripping Plant ) setelah dehidrasi di unit-unit lapangan dehidrasi. Minyak akan diproses de-watered dalam settling tanks and dialirkan melalui storage tanks ke jalur pompa-pompa minyak utama. Setiap stasiun (Khatiyah, Fahahil and Jaleha) memompa minyak ke Stasiun pompa Umm Bab Booster, dimana tekanan dari sini akan memompa minyak untuk ditransport ke jaringan pipa-pipa menuju Mesaieed dan wilayah timur pantai Qatar.
Khuff gas sejatinya digunakan untuk mensupplai bahan bakar Doha power stations di Ras Abu Aboud and Ras Abu Fontas.Khuff gas sekarang dioperasikan sebagai cadangan strategis untuk gas suplemen ke Doha power stations.
Fahahil North Field gas injection compressor station.North Field gas emanates from a giant gas and condensate reservoir, which extends over an area of more than 6,000 square kilometers off the north east coast of Qatar.
North Field gas is processed in NGL-3 plant at Mesaieed. The surplus lean gas from NGL-3 is received at Fahahil North Field injection station, where its pressure is boosted for injection into Khuff and Arab-D reservoirs for storage and reservoir management respectively.
Powered water injection system (Secondary Recovery)
The function of powered water injection is to enhance oil recovery and maintain the reservoir pressures in Dukhan Field for Arab-C, Arab-D and Uwainat formations. This is achieved by abstracting water from a natural aquifer (Umm Er Radhuma) and pumping it down the designated injection wells connected to the relevant, formations via a high pressure ring main encircling Dukhan Field. In addition to the ring main three clusters of PWI have also been provided for isolated areas for the same purpose.
The Arab-D cap gas recycling system plant
The Arab-D cap gas recycling plant was originally installed with the objective to produce 800 million cubic feet per day (mcf/d) MMSCFD of gas from the Arab-D gas cap, extract 40,000 dbarrels per day (b/d) of condensate and up to 750 tons per day of natural gas liquids (NGL). The residue gas is re injected into the same reservoir/formation. The plant was commissioned in June 1998 and the first batch of product was exported from Mesaieed on August 27, 1998.
The Arab-D cap gas recycling plant has been upgraded under Dukhan Arab–D upgrade to increase the raw NGL recovery from 750 to 5,600 t/d Raw NGL from this plant is being processed at NGL-4 plant, for supplying ethane to Q-Chem for the production of ethylene.
Township & Community
QP provides infrastructure, services, social, recreational, civic and business facilities for the community in the QP Dukhan Township, concession and the neighboring areas. 1,860 housing units are provided for married and bachelor staff within Dukhan Township. Recreational facilities for staff and families are provided through four staff clubs offering a fully equipped fitness center, swimming pool, tennis courts, and squash and badminton complex. There is also a state-of-the-art 620-seat cinema.
Subsidized catering services are available to the multinational workforce employed in Dukhan through different restaurants as well as extended services such as a-la-carte, coffee shop, function catering and VIP service.
Dukhan English School
Dukhan English School (DES) is one of the oldest English-medium schools in Qatar, tracing its origins back to the early 1950s. DES is owned and operated by QP for the benefit of its employees who reside in Dukhan. It offers a British curriculum from pre-nursery age four up to IGCSE at age 16 years and A Levels at age 18 years
Dukhan Medical Centre
Though health care has been available in Dukhan since early exploration times, the QP Medical Services Department moved into its current premises in 1983. It provides a comprehensive primary care, occupational and dental health care to QP employees and family members residing in Dukhan as well as the population in surrounding areas. A 24-hour emergency service with full-fledged ambulatory care is linked with Qatar’s Emergency Medical Services.
In addition to Dukhan Medical Centre, QP Medical Services operates a contractor clinic providing primary health care access to contractor personnel.
An ambulance station at Umm Bab, 28 kilometers from Dukhan, covers the QP concession area 24 hours a day.
Dukhan Power Station
Located inside Dukhan township, Dukhan Power Station is the hub of power generation and distribution of Dukhan Field. The station is entirely operated and maintained by QP.
The station consists of 14 gas turbine generators and has a total installed capacity of 39 megawatts. Power is supplied from the power station to the field production stations via overhead power lines operating at 33,000 volts. Power for the township and the Qatar Electricity & Water Company (QEWC) desalination plant is also supplied from the power station via underground cables operating at 11,000 volts.
Due to increasing demand in the power supply for Dukhan Fields, two 132,000-volt overhead line links were established with Qatar General Electricity and Power Company, one link from Doha and the other from Ras Laffan.
Telecommunication services started in the early 1940s and were limited to copper cable and magneto phones. Now the telecommunication services are some of the most advanced facilities including a state-of-the-art Meridian Exchange, which has an expandable capacity of 5,000 subscriber lines and an optical fiber-based telecom network through the Dukhan Field.
Dukhan Desalination Plant
Dukhan Desalination Plant was constructed in 1995, producing about two million gallons per day of desalinated water. The plant was handed over to Dukhan Operations in 1997 and later sold to QEWC, which took over operational and maintenance activities in January, 2003.
The storage capacity of Dukhan potable water tanks was upgraded from 4 million gallons to 10 million gallons in 2007.
Dukhan Sewage Treatment Plant
Domestic sewage generated by the population of Dukhan township and surrounding installations is collected and transferred to Dukhan Sewage Treatment Plant where it undergoes many processes to remove all contaminants, producing treated sewage effluent which is utilized for irrigation purposes. QP, in coordination with the Supreme Council for the Environment and the Natural Reserves ensures that the plant operates to international standards.
Since 1994 QP has been running its oil and gas operations in Dukhan in an environmentally –friendly way.
Dukhan received an appreciation award from the Arabian Cities Award Organization (Environment), has been praised for its care of the environment in numerous ways and for keeping the environment safe for the future.
Several projects have been undertaken to improve marine, land and air environment in and around Dukhan. These include:
- Qatar University Scientific and Applied Research Center conducted an ecological survey of the marine environment opposite Dukhan Field in 1997 and a second in 2004.
- Artificial reef building by construction of reef balls in 2001 and 2004.
- Clean up of the 25- year- old Zekreet waste dump site in 2000.
- A groundwater assessment and monitoring project, completed in 2005
- A compliance monitoring plan project, completed mid 2004.
- An air quality monitoring station inside Dukhan Township was constructed early in 2002 with an aim to continuously monitor ambient air quality.
- A flare upgrade project completed in early 2003 replaced all existing ground flares with smokeless elevated flares at all degassing stations in Dukhan Field.
In addition to the above projects, several other environmental projects are planned for the near future, including a hazardous waste storage facility upgrade, environmental laboratory, metal and plastic drum management, and landform for treatment of oil contaminated soil.